Hand Pathologies

Hand Anatomy

In the hand we find numerous muscles, ligaments, and sheaths. Muscles are structures that contract and allow the bones of the hand to move. Ligaments are fibrous tissues that help join the joints of the hand together. The sheaths are tubular structures that surround part of the fingers.

Phalanges: the 14 bones that are in the fingers of each hand and also in the toes of each foot. Each finger has three phalanges (distal, middle and proximal); only the thumb has two.

Metacarpal bones: The five bones that make up the middle part of the hand.

Carpal bones: the eight bones that make up the wrist. The carpal bones are connected to two bones of the arm, the ulna bone and the radius bone.

Ligament Injuries

In daily life, one of the most used parts of the body are the hands. And it is necessary to use them for activities such as work, writing and play.

When a ligament injury occurs in the hand, these activities become difficult due to the limitation of the injury.

Ligament injuries are common in hand injuries. They usually require orthopedic treatment and can often leave painful sequelae or joint stiffness in poorly treated patients.

The most common injuries are: triangular fibrocartilage lesion , scapholunate lesion, Stener lesion, among others.

Hand and Wrist Fracture

A broken hand or wrist is a fracture, or fissure, in one or more bones of the hand or wrist.

The most common injuries occur when people try to catch themselves during a fall and when they fall to the ground with an outstretched hand.

You may be more likely to have a fracture if you play sports such as inline skating or snowboarding, or have a disease in which the bones become thinner and more brittle (osteoporosis).

It is important to treat the fracture as soon as possible, otherwise the bones could fuse together in the wrong alignment, which could affect your ability to do everyday activities, such as writing or buttoning a shirt.

Timely treatment and under wrist arthroscopy guarantees an optimal result, not only of the bone part, but also of the ligamentous part of the wrist.

Tendinitis Around the Hand

It consists of an inflammation of the tendons, which is generally produced by a repetitive action that requires overstraining of the joint, or by a sprain. Tendinitis can decrease range of motion and cause weakness when gripping, throwing, and writing.

The most obvious symptom of hand tendinitis is pain, however, the following symptoms may occur: tenderness, numbness, tingling, swelling.

The main cause of tendonitis is repeatedly performing the same action, which produces overexertion or friction in the area and causes the tendons to become inflamed. Normally, this happens for work or sports reasons. However, there are other natural causes that cause this problem, one of them is age, since aging causes the tendons to lose elasticity.

Degenerative Diseases

It refers to a condition in which the tissues, structures or functions of the hands experience progressive deterioration over time. These diseases can affect the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or nerves in the hands, which can lead to decreased dexterity, strength, and functionality.

Some of the degenerative diseases are arthritis and osteoarthritis .

It is important to consult a specialist doctor to obtain an accurate diagnosis and receive appropriate treatment for any degenerative hand disease. Each condition may require specific treatment approaches, such as medications, physical therapy, or surgery, as needed.

Nerve Injuries

They are damages or injuries that affect the nerves that provide sensitivity and muscle control in these areas of the body. The most commonly affected nerves in the hands and wrists are the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and radial nerve.

Some of the more well-known nerve injuries in these areas include: carpal tunnel syndrome , ulnar neuropathy, radial nerve injuries.

These nerve injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, such as trauma, repetitive movements, prolonged nerve compression, fractures, inflammation, or underlying diseases.

Treatment for nerve injuries in the hands and wrists may include physical therapy, pain medications, splinting, or, in some cases, surgery to relieve pressure on the affected nerve and restore normal function.